Mental health problems are frustrating because it is hard to classify them as having a biological or psychological basis. I know there has to be some psychological component, mental illnesses are diagnosed based on behaviour after all. I am hoping for some solid research showing depression and other mental health issues have a biological basis though. If the cause is in my biology, there isn’t much I could have done to have prevented it. It is not in my control. I am not to blame. A psychological basis would imply that my behaviour is the problem. I am responsible for my behaviour and so I am to blame, or so society dictates. Calling depression a brain malfunction would minimize the shame I feel when I have to explain myself. I don’t want people to feel sorry for me, but I don’t want them to always wonder why I don’t just snap out of it either.
There is support for both the biological and psychological sides. Since mental processes are carried out by the brain, all disorders of mental function are biological. Just like the lungs are the organs for breathing, the brain is the organ for the mind. Where else could mental illness be if not the brain? Not so long ago, we didn’t know that much about how the lungs worked. All doctors could do for respiratory disease were observe physiological presentation and listen to patient complaints. Today, there are all sorts of tests to measure lung function. The same principles apply to the brain, we just don’t know enough about it yet.
On the flip side, some go to extremes, arguing that everything from mental illness, to criminality and sexual orientation are seen less as a matter of choice than a genetic destiny. Mental health problems could be the result of normal personality traits coming together in such a way to make functioning in today’s world difficult. One scientist compared the brain to a computer and mental processing to the software. There can be a bug in the software that prevents things from running smoothly, but the hardware is still fine.
What do you think? Do mental illnesses fall into one of two distinct categories (psychological vs. biological), or do they exist on a continuum having different percentages of biological and psychological contributions?
Recent research posed similar questions to clinicians (psychiatrists, psychologists and social workers) to determine their beliefs on the causes of mental illness. I would like to know what my psychiatrist thinks. After all, his beliefs would probably have an effect on my therapy and may determine whether or not he prescribes medication and which medication it would be. The study showed that clinicians tend to look at mental health problems across a spectrum of biological to psychological rather than categorical. They believe disorders with a larger biological component would respond best to medication, while those with a larger psychological component would respond better to therapy.
They didn’t show all 445 identified mental illnesses on this spectrum, but they did show 9 familiar ones. I looked up my primary diagnosis, depression, on the graph and it was right smack in the middle. Clinicians viewed depression as having biological and psychological contributions that were almost even. Darn. Other diagnoses like bipolar and bulimia were more clear cut in clinician minds, showing larger biological and psychological components respectively.
It turns out the biological basis I was hoping would explain my depression is a double-edged sword. Although the average person would probably be more compassionate about a brain malfunction, clinicians would be less so. This study showed clinicians felt more compassion towards those with mental health problems thought to be caused by psychological factors. Researchers thought perhaps the emphasis on biology was dehumanizing, causing the patient to be viewed as more of a biological mechanism than a person.
Regardless of the beliefs of clinicians or those of society in general, I think we can all agree, the more we understand about all components of mental illness, the better.
Resources: Ahn, Proctor and Flanagan, 2009